Spring is upon us! Temperatures are climbing steadily – we are already at 27 degrees C. But a nip still lingers at night and in the mornings. Therefore, the mustard family gets to reign for a few more weeks. I have mentioned mustard fields and I have talked about Punjab…but I haven’t yet talked about their favorite winter greens preparation.
About Saag – sarson da saag (Punjabi) or mustard greens. When I first started reading food blogs a couple of years back, I was impressed by the familiarity of the Western world (the US-based blogs, in any case) with ‘saag’ which is the Punjabi word for greens in general. Just like Kashmiris refer to one specific kind of green when we say haak, saag too refers to sarson or mustard greens, unless specified otherwise – palak ka saag (spinach greens), bathuey ka saag, so on and so forth. Punjab has never heard of saag-paneer. The saag-paneer combination intrigued me till I discovered it was the American avatar of good old palak-paneer, which, I am told (by none other than our own desikudi, Musical) is not that traditional in rural Punjab.
What is beloved to rural Punjab in winter months is sarson da saag, gently simmered over the low heat provided by cow chips burning in an angithi or chullah. I know some neighbours who dig out their angithis (coal or wood burning portable stoves) every year just so they can cook mustard greens like the saag of their childhood! It does not find much favour with my oogra-vaadi 😉 , allergic-to-brassica-tastes family, but how can I not cook this most delicious of greens, after which the whole family of gloriously oogra (the Marathi word for strong-tasting, in a disagreeable sense) greens and vegetables, chock-full of antioxidants, is named!
Indian mustard greens have stems with tough skins, which, along with the leaves, must be chopped very fine, and steamed till tender. Milder tasting spinach is added to the mustard greens to reduce bitterness. My mother would sometimes add radish greens, bits of radish, even turnips. They all mellow the pungency of mustard.
Once tender, it is mashed, the implement of choice here being the madaani or ravi (similar to this), and simmered some more after adding makki ka atta (corn flour) till it becomes thick and creamy. Just before serving, it is mixed with a tadka of ginger, onions, and tomatoes, and slit green chillies in ghee. Served with makki ki roti, it embodies the sunny winters of the Northern Plains.
Locally, corn flour is available only in the winter months. Rotis made with the flour of freshly harvested yellow corn are delicious. A dollop of unsalted white butter is mandatory on the roti; a half dollop doesn’t hurt in the saag as well. There’s a time for a low-fat diet, and winter is not that.
Sarson ka Saag
750 gms (1 ½ lb) mature mustard greens
250 gms (½ lb) spinach greens
1/3 C makki ka atta* (not cornstarch) or cornmeal
2 T unsalted butter or ghee
2 T grated ginger
1 C chopped onion
1 C chopped tomatoes
slit green chillies
additional butter or ghee for serving (optional but recommended)
Wash the greens, including the tougher stems, and chop very fine. Pressure cook with a little water till tender. Alternately, cook covered over gentle heat till tender. Mash with a madaani or a wooden roller, or use a handheld blender, taking care to not make a fine puree. Put it back on the stove to simmer. Stir in corn flour and cook till creamy.
Traditionally, saag is prepared in large quantities to be consumed over a few days. The tadka is added only to the portion that is being served. I find it stays well for a couple of days even if you add the tadka to the entire quantity.
For preparing the tadka, heat butter or ghee in a pan or karahi. Add ginger, followed by chopped onions, and cook till the onions are transparent. Add the tomatoes and cook, stirring constantly over medium heat, till the tomatoes are mushy and the fat has risen to the surface. Add slit green chillies and stir. Add the cooked greens and salt, and simmer for 10-15 minutes. Serve hot with makki ki roti. Corn tortillas should be a reasonably good substitute for the corn rotis.
Maaki ki Roti
3 C makki ka atta (or fine cornmeal)
grated mooli (radish), 1 C or so (optional)
very hot water
Take all the ingredients in a bowl and add hot water. Mix with a wooden spoon. Keep covered till it is cool enough to be kneaded by hand. Knead for a few minutes. Hot water helps obtain a softer dough that doesn’t fray at the edges when rolled. Divide into 8-10 portions. Roll out, one at a time, into 1/8 inch thick circles 5-6 inch diameter and . Pressed between the palms to perfection by expert cooks, I roll mine between two layers of plastic (this slit Ziplock freezer-bag has been serving me well for over 10 years!]. Cook on medium heat on a tava or cast iron griddle, with or without a brushing of oil, ghee, or butter. I rarely use ghee for frying since it makes too much smoke; peanut oil is my preferred fat here.
Serve hot, topped with butter, with sarson ka saag. The fresh and sweet taste of corn makes these rotis special. I savour them on their own, but they are great with saag.
Corn is in the winter air:
Jugalbandi’s Broccoli-Corn Dhokla
Anna Parabrahma’s healthy Corn Bhel
Evolving Tastes’ Polenta Kheer
A Mingling of Tastes with Pear Cornmeal Upside-Down Cake
The Singing Chef’s colourful Cornmeal Vegetable Salad
* makki ka atta is the flour of Indian yellow corn. It is ground much finer than the commonly found cornmeal (in the US). Use the finest cornmeal you can find for this roti. Mix corn flour/meal with equal part whole wheat atta if you like smooth-edged thinner rotis that puff up.
81 thoughts on “Sarson ka Saag aur Makki ki Roti”
Looks so yummy!
this looks straight out of a dhaba. what a glorious way to bid farewell to winter.
Well, there still remains a final round of gobhi paranthas… 😉
Nicely showcased a real Punjabi classic! Sadly, I have never ever had the chance to sample this in all its authentic glory. And thanks for the link love.
It’s quite simple, actually. You could give it a try if you think the recipe interests you. The makki ki roti is really good if you like the taste of corn, which you obviously do.
Thats a lovely post Anita! I have a Punjabi friend here who was wonderful enough to feed me sarson ka saag and makki di roti during my pregnancy.I loved it then but ahve never tried it at home! I see makki ka aata in the indian stores here and mustard greens in the american groceries- i surely can try this combo. My friend Kuldeep makes here sarson ka saag in the slow cooker and lets it cook for a good 8 hours she said! I’m going to try this soon… thanks for the temptation 🙂
Thanks, Latha. That saag must be to die for! I think the slow cooker idea is great!
I’ve been looking for an aunthentic sarson da saag recipe. Looks great with the pairing of makki roti.
Yup, this is as authentic as they come; it has Musical’s stamp of approval!
Its sad that being a thet punjabi kudi, I dont eat this. Never have infact. everyone in my family loves it. When I was younger my parents would joke that I am not a punju, bcos I did not eat this. The roti looks just like moms. Try eating a piece of gur with it.
With gur, is it? Will definitely try this pairing. I do love roti, with gur and ghee.
It is hard to believe there might be a Punjabi who doesn’t like sarson da saag!
Haven’t had this combo before, but looks great! 🙂
It is a classic!
Cool! Love your description of saag :). And you put a picture of the paathis (paathi: the dried dung for fuel).
I will take the saag with regular parantha :). I must be the only Punju who’s not a big fan of makai di roti ;). I like them, but the saag has to be with regular crispy parantha. And i also used to refuse that mandatory dollop of ghee on top of my saag :-D. As a teenager, there are many ways in which you assert yourself ;).
A big for this one,
You sure you from the pind? 😀 Do you allow yourself any ghee now?
So, they are called paathi in Punjab. Here the flattened disc-shaped ones are called ‘oupla’.
Hugs to you too. And thanks for the authentication too – for the recipe, as well as about the sag-paneer nomenclature. 😉
“Traditionally, saag is prepared in large quantities to be consumed over a few days. The tadka is added only to the portion that is being served.”
It can’t get any more authentic than this! Makes me feel like home here 🙂
[She won’t skip Jamna-paar next time!]
I have eaten this and loved it. But as I get neither fine cornmeal or the saag (maybe I shall grow some in a pot?) where I live I shall just have to rely on memory and pictures like yours. 😦
Why not? Mustard seeds are ever handy in the spice box – put them to great use!
You missed out my cornmeal salad 🙂
But I can forgive you for that. What I find is that you didn’t invite me over for this meal!! :-((((((((((((((((
This is not fair!!
I ate this at every wedding I went to this winter… and that was 10 in all… didn’t bother with anything else… so I really had my fill… but home made stuff… Anita… adopt me na? please
Oversight fixed! 😀
We must do something sooooon! You’re right about the home made vs. wedding-food stuff too; totally different breeds.
Um, Raaga, with all due respect, you do need to join the line…at the back. Go on.
[Like the US consulates here, I think I might benefit from charging some paper-processing fees…You have applied in written, in triplicate, with your full ‘bio-data’, recent photograph, current employment status, etc.?]
I do this only when MIL is around…love it anyways…the combo is killing
And worth dying for! 😆
You tell ‘er TLO! I’m sorry Raaga; normally I am very polite and allow ladies first, but in the seriously competitive case of adoption by Anita, I must concur with the sassy suburban lass and repeat: To the back of the line with you!
Such keepers of discipline we are. Didn’t know you were in the queue! Will need to check registration…Late fees might apply. Payable in mole, of course.
You are such a tease Anita. The only mustard greens we get here are in a tin and that tastes anything but – sarson da saag ummm and makki di roti. Always brings back memories of my granddad and me going to the guduwara for lunger! But you are doing it again – inspiring me to make something I love. Bless you!
You say arborio, I say sarson… 😉
anita, this is what i call a total show off 🙂 u r killing me with a plate of sarson ka saag and makhai ki roti.
how much of hot water u used (approx) to make roti? yeah, i am clueless when it comes to making makki ki roti 😀
And the pleasure is all mine!
I didn’t measure, but did use my hands, which gives better judgement, to mix. But it was a bit too hot, so be careful. It doesn’t matter if you put slightly less initially, you can always add more (warm) later to get it to the right consistency. Maybe the first time around, just use water as hot as your hands can handle, so you get an idea of how much water the flour can absorb. If the flour is not fresh, that too will result in frayed edges and some bitterness.
i never heard of this nor tasted this.. but greenlooks really yummy!! im wondring though does it have the same flavor as mustard???i mean the seeds we use to make mustard sauce?
The leaves are not as pungent as ground mustard. But if you chew on them raw, you can get a hint of that pungency.
I had this awesome combo in Delhi when accompanying my dad on his office trip years ago. It was out of the world, never got a chance to try it again. Will try your recipe ASAP 🙂 Thank you Anita!
I can assure you it will bring the memories flooding!
authentic and simple! you make me want me to leave work and go home to make this right now! i love saag, just hate washing it trying to make sure all the grit is gone. however, after seeing this… 🙂
These days I make smaller quantities (that recipe above is the small one 😀 ) so that the rinsing and chopping doesn’t overwhelm. It’s worth the effort, believe you me!
Finally you have paid your respect to Punjabi influence Anita :). Just noticed Punjabi food in a Marathi Taat :);). I’m going to try this out. Will I get it in North east too will be up there mid march?
And it’s not the final tribute!
Dunno about its availability…but if they have mustard seeds….? And North east is cooler than the Plains…so longer winters I should think.
N thanks for the linky thingy
😉 My pleasure.
I regularly visit your blog. You present our everyday meals very nicely. 🙂
Just a small addition for your saag next time, if I may. Even I put mooli in my makki ki roti. I add the juices that I squeeze from the mooli to my saag during the steaming process. It surely enhances its flavour richness.
My mum would sometimes add mooli to the saag while cooking, so I can see mooli juice being put to good use here. For this roti however, I use grated mooli without squeezing out the water.
Wah wah kya baat hai. You bring back memories of Dilwale dulhaniya le jaayenge. Those wonderful scenes of punjabi fields and maa ka khana ;o) I wish I was your neighbor..so I could at least indulge in all those yummy smells wafting from your kitchen hehe. Great recipe dear.
I don’t cooklike this everyday 😉 This is just to tease all you ex-pats!
Bah. US Consulate. Processing fees. Whatever next!
Some people have a memory like that of a sieve. Luckily, your blog don’t lie. And also, luckily, you don’t edit my comments.
All processed, ma’am.
Why would I edit comments?! I can always delete if I no-like!
I used to love ghee in that parantha, but not in the saag 🙂 But good sense prevails now and i welcome ghee in my saag and whatever other stuff accompanies it 😀
Have to visit Jamna-paar atleast one time 😀
😉 I knew you’d agree!
Damn, it didn’t take the second link. Here
Damn. Seems like your application was processed long ago…when are you joining us at the table, dear Manisha?
Musy, come to Colorado, I’ll give you all the ghee you want. And no processing fees for papers or emails or pdf files or anything. Hmmmph!
I’ll take ghee…
ohhh…how i love these two!! yumm..
Made for each other…
New to your blog…what a wonderfulblog you have…the colors and the feel are great! would be a regular now 🙂
Hi Vani. Welcome and thanks!
I have actually made it a few times, with recipes very similar to yours, and liked it. The makai roti was mostly disastrous because it needs those bhakri type skills which I never learned, but I like Musy’s idea of making crisp parathas instead. I even tried a couple of versions in desi restaurants here but wasn’t too impressed by their taste.
I roll out bhakris the same way! 🙂 But paranthas are good too with saag, specially if you are not makki-roti inclined.
Sarson ka Saag aur Makki ki Roti , that is such a musical title … Whenever I see this name, I feel like singing it out… 🙂 Looks great… I have only had mustard greens here in the US… are the Indian ones more bitter? I don’t need to add anything to tone the bitterness down in the US version…
oh and where do I sign up to get into that adoption line? 🙂
Sorry for making you feel left out….
Yes, you’re right about the US mustard – it is much tender and less pungent.
You sure you want to join a primarily vegetarian far-from-the-sea-coast (read ‘no sea food’ 😉 ), household? I seriously doubt!
NEAT post that…Your love for vegetables, spices, and cooking itself is embodied in each line you write..love you for that 🙂
Thanks. No Punjabi recipes forthcoming from you it seems? 😉
my absolute fav.. ooh, can u please send some over? please!!!!!!!!i have enough water in my mouth for a ship!
😆 It really is a classic Punjabi dish!
What a delicious and fitting farewell to winter! I had my first taste of this lovely combination 15 years back in Karol Bagh in Delhi….Now I can’t digest the corn and the saag in large quantities so haven’t made any attempt to have another go – but I think I should atleast hubby gets a taste of this! Thanks for the recipe!
Yes, you must…and you can always have a small portion for yourself!
Wow, what an education. I know my mom would go on and on about mustard greens, as kids we did not like it but she would cook it for herself. I will definitely tell her about your method which sounds really tasty.
They don’t taste bitter when cooked like this.
Looks delicious and very healthy
Looks amazing. This is s staple winter meal at my mother’s home in Delhi. Brought back memories…
It is really the taste of Delhi winters!
This is totally unfair ! I am hoping your next post would be about home-made pasta !! I am unable to replicate this taste here. Dont know who to blame 🙂 Your thali always looks mouth-watering.
BTW, I see you mention Jamna-paar. Looks like I wont have to travel very far to find you next time 🙂
😀 Pasta-shasta finds no takers inthis home – I make and eat all by myself (I do make it from scratch, naturally!).
See ya next time then!
1. thanx madaani girl, 4 da saag recipe.true born punjaban! – that’s what u r.
2. time permitting: (gimme more:being the bukh that I am)
plz reveal the secret behind making those perfect(texture/folded) rotis-as in the sookhay gobi aloo recipe.
(someone said,” murgay naal roti tan hath poonjan lai hondi hai”, he must have had ur rotis in mind !!!))
😀 A lot of patience, and some elbow grease… after which I do hope the roti is more than just a roomal!
This is so good recipe…Healthy one…Love it…
Healthy?Yes…these are greens after all, and the butter topping to be omitted at your own risk!
Now I have another name for my mathu! This is one of the first combos I saw when I started my Indian blog-hopping, and it remains one I want to make the most. Now that spring has sprung here in New England I guess I’ll wait for next winter… and bookmark your post 🙂 Looks great and I won’t skimp on the butter/ghee, either 🙂
Also called ‘mathni’ hereabouts…I believe you are still getting some snow in those parts…maybe there is still time! No point in skimping on butter or ghee, not with saag, in any case!
I love these, I made sarson ka saag a few weeks back, but did not have makki ka atta for the saag. So just left it. But added grated paneer in it. It was awesome.
Thanks for the recipe. I have never made makki ki roti, will do so sometime when I get the atta.
Ah, I see you went the ‘saag-paneer’ route!
I am new to yor blog.Very niceand an array of new recipes to try.I have never tried this though heard a lot about it in movies :-(.
wanna give a try once i get the leaves for which i need to come to india boohoo.till then i can ease my eyes with ur blog.
Nope – you should be able to get mustard where you are!
I am in love with your polenta roti. They mut bea really crunchy and great. What is that white stick? Looks like coconut fat. You mentioned ghee (which is liquid) or butter (which is yellowish)… Correct me if I am wrong.
It’s crisp on the outside, but since it is made thick, it stays softer inside. That’s how I like it anyway.
The white sticks are mooli or daikon, the giant white radish! Not coconut fat!
Bah….. 😦 What did I do to get the silent treatment???
A total oversight! You can tell I tackled my comments in a very unstructured way this time (some I accessed from the comments, others from the posts, and this was the result…). Consider yourself adopted! (And please, don’t tell me the book got lost in the mail!) 😀
here after a long time…been busy…my fault totally….err….has the quota for application for adoption been exhausted??
😀 Why would I turn down requests for free help? There’s work to be done…
About you adding mooli without squeezing to the makki ka aataa, doesn’t the aataa become too soft to handle then? Any trick here?
No tricks. Maize is a water hungry grain and can absorb a lot of liquid. I needed hot water in addition…maybe I use less mooli than you do?
You reminded me of the home…home sweet home. The aroma of saag and roti is too overpowerpowring ! Thanks for the post !
Ah, the sweet smell of nostalgia.
Have included your Saag as a model recipe in the One page cookbook at http://ramkicooks.blogspot.com/.
/Thanks for the recipe
Hey Anita, I tried your combo y’day. The saag was delicious,more so because it does not taste similar to other greens and so its like a pleasant surprise while eating it. But the makki ki roti was a flop 😦 Firstly, I bought medium grained cornmeal and so could not form proper roti’s and then the grains were bitter when chewed on, no idea why? 😦 So I had to chuck them and make normal atta roti’s to go with the saag.
Corn/maize flour turns rancid very quickly. That is also the reason for its seasonal availability here. If it is not fresh, it can taste bitter, and is also harder to make into smooth roti. If you can get it fresh, adding some regular roti flour should help you make smoother roti.
And, now you have another green you like!
A truly fingerlicking dish….. Had a chance to sample it on my recent trip to India….. Just loved it. Thanks for posting the recipe.
Amongst my faves too!
Love your blog. I have tried out so many recipes from your blog- Aloo gobhi, chole, rajma and haak too. I couldnt believe such a simple dish as haak can go so well with rice.
I tried making makki ki roti and sarson ka saag long time ago, but neither my roti nor the saag came out well. But your recipe and photos are deeply inspiring me to try again. I think I am going to make them this weekend. Also I wanted to ask you if Bathua leaves are the same as Amaranth leaves. Thanks.
Most of the recipes here are what are everyday favourites in my home. Yay, we have another haak aficionado!
Bathua is Lamb’s Quarters.
Hi – I just wanted to let you know that I made both the saag and the roti about an hour ago – and it’s ALL gone. Both recipes were dead on perfect and tasted amazing. The trick with the plastic bag was extremely helpful. The fact that not a single roti or a lick of saag is left – just says how great these recipes were. Thanks so much for sharing them!
😀 I am glad to know you found the recipes easy to follow. They are such a classic combination – and how simple they really are – with ingredients that are in most everyone’s pantry!
Hi Anita. I’m a single Indian guy living in Vancouver, and I’ve been searching high and low to find the authentic Indian way to make saag and makki ki roti, and it looks like I’ve finally found it – thanks to you! I’m coming off a 10 day fast and will be trying my hand at this in the next few days. Any idea on the nutritional value of the Indian dishes? Thanks for a great recipe!
The recipe looks great! Just wondering if it is okay to use whole wheat flour instead of corn meal/makki ka atta. I’ve seen that done in some recipes. What are your thoughts about it? Thanks 🙂
Well, Anita; guess what? I just finished making this combo for the first time! (I’ve made variants of saag many times before- but never makki ki roti). Outstanding combo! But what a difficult flour to work with…I kept thinking to myself: paranthas would be MUCH easier…but I even ventured outside to where I have some radishes growing, pulled one, and had enough for the mandatory cupful. Even though my atta was a bit bitter (I added a little sugar), this was truly delightful…and ’tis definitely the right season here for both! Thanks for sharing this!
BTW, I altered your saag recipe. 😀
the atta kept breaking off. i had bought the fine corn flour(swad brand) in the US. can you help me?
Just came across this blog..lovely recipe and very well written.I havn heard of raddish with makki roti but im sure its grt besides I like to experiment with food.Thanks im gonna try this roti.
looks amazingly delicious! oh i miss “mom ke haath ka bana saag”!
My hubby is out hiking Rainier today.. this will be an awesome surprise for him when he comes back!:)
One question though – i dont have madaani or hand blender. can i use the regular blender ?
Just make sure you don’t puree it completely…it should have some texture.
Hey Anita,Just noticed this…….seems like your picture….isn’t it? I don’t even know if you gave permission for it but thought I’d bring it to your notice.
Thanks for bringing it to my notice, Nidhi. I wouldn’t be surprised if all the pictures on that forum are stolen! I was unable to post any comments; I don’t want to register for it! I give up! 😦
Hi–can u tell me what brand makki atta you used? I tried making this with SWAD makki atta by adding hot water, but i could not even form a ball to make the roti. Does adding radish help with forming the roti? thx
He he, good old memories 🙂 Just wanted to let you know that i have recently fallen in love with makai di rotis :)). And i always make them with mooli and hari mirch. I know it’s not winter yet, but it is such a hearty treat with chai!! Oh, and at hoem we also serve makai rotis with aloo-gobhi, i (for the first time ever) tried this combo and it is YUMMY! I also recall a friend crushing plain makai rotis into her bowl of gonglu sabzi, and i think i might that one soon too!
I love the way you intertwine story and recipe together. This is my first visit and I am inspired! Maybe I will even try cook this meal, although I have midwestern American bland taste buds, haha. Thanks for a fascinating write.
Anita…visited your recipes blog for the first time and fell in love with it. What an amazing collection you have. Coming to the saag and makki di roti, I just love the combo but hardly get the authentic taste here in the restaurants. I’ll try making the saag today to start off with and surprisingly I have a can of sarson ka saag and a bunch of spinach in my kitchen. Unfortunately haven’t seen fresh mustard leaves around here. Can I use the canned leaves tho????
Will let you know the outcome.
What a great combination of ‘sarso ka saag aur makki ki roti’.
It is such a great dish!
I will definitely try this dish on my next flights to Amritsar.
Thanks for the recipe. We polished off most of it for dinner. Made just the saag. No fans for makki ki roti. Delicious!
Awesome description and pictures. If I make it on low heat, instead of the pressure cooker, how many minutes / hours should it take ? Does it really take 3 – 4 hours ?
Nice blog 🙂 Keep it up ! And thanks for this recipe !
Hey Anita, saw ur recipe on the wiki page for Sarson ka saag,verbatim. See here http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarson_Da_Saag. Thought u shud knw..:)
Thanks for pointing this out, Sandhya! I just let Wiki know and within 10 min I have their response that the content has been removed!
Well this is the most authentic recipe of sasgo ka saag on Internet…. i am shocked to see… what useless recipe other people are writing… and they are not even punjabis…
Its funny that some marathis and gujrathis teach you..how to make sarso ka saag… i have grown up in punjab seeing my mom making sargo ka saas.. so i can say that your recipe is THE RECIPE…
Although i dnt like to put tomatoes in Tadka… 🙂 And i hate to see that people make puree of saag in blender… One can easily mash the leaves with hard spatula if the wooden mash roll is not available…
Thanks for sharing!
I want to thank you for posting such a wonderfully presented,easy to follow recipe. You totally made our Sunday. I just finished making the roti and saag following your recipe and my meal would not be complete without a sincere thank you and appreciation for the hard work behind putting this up on your blog. Hats off to you, and I have bookmarked your site for getting to in the future. Once again, thank you so much for teaching a south indian the art of punjabi comfort food!
Thanks for writing in, Kalyani! I am happy to note that your family enjoyed a favourite of ours!
I don’t know how I missed letting you know that this has become a standard in my house when I can find mustard and spinach at the same time, and when I am inclined to go the extra step and make the makke ki rotis as well. Perhaps I already told you by email? Can’t remember things as I used to, anymore. 😦 Either way, thank you for this wonderful recipe!
🙂 You cannot talk about forgetfulness already! It is a simple recipe with few ingredients but I get to cook it only in the winter since mustard is seasonal here.
You write about “sarson ka saag” and also “sarson da saag”. The near-similarity is confusing to a non-Hindi speaker. Can you please explain the difference? And what do the prepositions “ka” and “da” mean in English? (I think “ka” means “of”.) Thank you.
Means the same, in two different languages – Hindi and Punjabi! A rose by any other name…the recipe is in English, which is where there ought to be no confusion.